Blue Flower

Sunday, 05 July 2015 13:00

Kernel Customization

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This document has been updated 89/3/2016:

There may be two main reasons as to why you would want a custom kernel on your system:

You want to add some functionality to your system such as audio support, or
You may want to remove some unused drivers to conserve memory.

Either way, Making a Custom kernel will help your machine to be a faster box rather than using the GENERIC kernel. At the beginning of the install we updating your System to -STABLE which involved you downloading the src, or some simply put source, which we need for making the custom kernel. If you didn't do that step, here is what you need to do. For those of you who did update to -STABLE, skip to we can then start on the kernel customization:

Since sysinstall no longer works we need to use svnlite to install the sources. If you already have current sources please skip this step.

# cd /usr/src
# svnlite checkout /usr/src

This will take a few minutes to updae.

Once this is done we can then start on the kernel customization. Use one of the following commands to go to the proper folder depending if you're running i386 or amd64:

i386 users: # cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf
amd64 users: # cd /usr/src/sys/amd64/conf

This is where FreeBSD keeps it's kernel configuration files. The generic kernel config is in the file GENERIC. All the possible kernel options can be found in the LINT file. What we will want to do first is copy GENERIC to a new Kernel name. We *NEVER* want to edit the GENERIC file.


A few notes about editing your new kernel file:

1) Here is an example line from the kernel

device ppbus # Parallel port bus (required)

any line that says (required) means exactly that. Don't comment it out or delete it. So in this example, you can delete everything below that section if you don't have a Printer, TCP/IP over parallel, or a Parallel port interface device.

2) Don't delete any lines. Comment them out with a # in the front.

3) Always change your ident line as follows

Scroll down the line that reads:

Change the line to read:

4) If you're not sure what you have or don't have for devices, you can check this in /var/log/messages (provided it hasn't been forever since your last reboot).

This is a great example. There are a ton of Network Card drivers in the kernel and you really only need one. Lets look in /var/log messages for your Ethernet Card. I'll use my NIC as an example:

fxp0: <Intel 82559 Pro/100 Ethernet> port 0xec00-0xec3f mem 0xdf100000-0xdf100fff,0xdf000000-0xdf0fffff irq 11 at device 9.0 on pci0

so if we edit MYKERNEL and scroll down to the PCI and make sure you keep the following lines in there and delete everything else in the PCI and ISA Network card sections:

device miibus # MII bus support
device fxp # Intel EtherExpress PRO/100B (82557, 82558)

So go ahead and make all the changes from there.

Now we can test your new kernel:

Change to the /usr/src directory.

# cd /usr/src

Compile the kernel.

# make buildkernel KERNCONF=MYKERNEL

If you get some errors you screwed up. Go fix it or copy GENERIC back to MYKERNEL and start over. If not, You can continue

Install the new kernel.

# make installkernel KERNCONF=MYKERNEL

You are done! You should reboot to make the changes effective!

If you do a uname -a after the reboot, you should now see

FreeBSD beast.local x.x-XXXXX FreeBSD 8.X-XXXXX #0: Day Mon XX XX:XX:56 EDT 2010 This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.:/usr/obj/usr/src/sys/MYKERNEL i386

Sunday, 05 July 2015 12:59

Shell Shortcuts

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There are a few different tricks I use for using the Shell. The first thing I would do is change your shell to TCSH. Run the following command as root:

# chsh user

Drop down to the Shell line and make it look like the following line:

Shell: /bin/tcsh

Save and Exit. Now type exit again and login again as that user. You should now have a Prompt.

Now the next thing I like to do is I like to know the full path of the directory of where I am at. It makes it easier to know where you're at without having to type pwd all the time. The first thing you will want to do is to edit your .cshrc in your home firectory so lets do that:

# vi ~user/.cshrc

Scroll down to the line that looks like this:

# An interactive shell -- set some stuff up

Comment out the set prompt line already in there by putting a # in front of it and then create a new line by hitting the O key on your keyboard. Now put this line in:

set prompt="[%B%/%b] user@host# "

Exit and save. Now type

# source ~user/.cshrc

You should now see a prompt like so:

[/home/user] user@host#

What I would suggest doing next is doing the same thing for your root account:

# vi ~root/.cshrc

Scroll down to the section where it says "# An interactive shell -- set some stuff up" and go down where it has a set prompt section and delete that line. Add the following line:

set prompt="[%B%/%b] root@host# "

Then save and exit. If you are root now, Just type

# source ~root/.cshrc

and you will now see a custom root prompt. Nice job!

The last thing I do to my .cshrc is add a ton of different shortcuts. I still like using the old dos commands like dir and stuff. Add the following line to your .cshrc:

alias wtf echo "I dunno"

so if you do

# source ~user/.cshrc

and then you type "wtf" at the prompt, It will reply "I dunno".

Here is a list of the different aliases I use in my ~root/.cshrc

alias wtf echo "I dunno"
alias tgz "tar cvzf"
alias sendfilter "tai64nlocal < /var/log/qmail/qmail-send/current"
alias smtpfilter "tai64nlocal < /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd/log/main/current"
alias popfilter "tai64nlocal < /var/log/qmail/qmail-pop3d/current"
alias sslfilter "tai64nlocal < /service/smtpssl/log/main/current"
alias dropfilter "tai64nlocal < /var/log/maildrop/current"
alias tinydnslog "tai64nlocal < /service/tinydns/log/main/current"
alias portsearch "sockstat -l | grep "
alias mcdrom "mount_cd9660 /dev/acd0 /cdrom"
alias ucdrom "umount /cdrom"
alias space "du -hs"
alias h history 25
alias j jobs -l
alias la ls -a
alias lf ls -FA
alias ll ls -lA
alias dir "ls -laG"
alias remove "rm -dfr"
alias i "make install clean distclean"
alias up "/usr/libexec/locate.updatedb &"
alias sup "cvsup -g -L 2 ~root/stable-supfile"
alias pup "cvsup -g -L 2 ~root/ports-supfile"
alias chkdsk "df -h"
alias qstat "qmailctl stat"
alias proc "ps -auxw | grep "

"UseDNS no" speeds up login times since sshd does not perform reverse
DNS on the connecting IPs. Edit the following file

# vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

and look for the UseDNS setting and uncomment it and change yes to no. Then you'll want to restart ssh in order for the changes to take effect.

# killall -HUP sshd

Thats it for Shell Customizations!

How to backup via rsync/ssh from one server to another

Required: You need to have rsync and ssh installed

Part of this documentation was taken from and also

The server in this document is the box that has all files needed to backup
The client in this document is the box the files are being backed up to

Setting up the ssh keys on the server

On the server, Open up /etc/ssh/sshd_config and add PermitRootLogin without-password. Then you will want to restart sshd by running killall -HUP sshd. You will get kicked out of your terminal. If all is well, You should be able to login again. Root is now allowed to login only via a ssh key. Don't worry, there is some added security in the document as well.

Generating the key on the client

The first thing we will want to do is generate the key on the backup machine. Run the following command:

# ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -b 1024 -f id_dsa_backup -C 'Some comment'

When you see 'Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):' Just hit enter and then when you see the confirmation that says 'Enter same passphrase again:' just hit enter again. After a few seconds, it should give you an output similar to the following:

Your identification has been saved in id_dsa_backup.
Your public key has been saved in
The key fingerprint is:
88:da:e8:4c:50:5d:c5:95:b9:1e:6e:8f:96:82:c0:19 Some Comment

Now, the is the file we need to ssh over to your server. Here are the steps you will want to follow to get this over to your server to allow root logins via ssh:

This part you will want to do on the Server:

# scp user@backup:/path/to/ .
user@server's password: |********************| 0 0:00
# cat >> ~root/.ssh/authorized_keys2
# chmod 600 ~root/.ssh/authorized_keys2
# exit

This is not the only way to get the public key file into place. You could also copy it on a floppy disk, or email it to the system administrator and have them install it for you (remember this is the PUBLIC key, there is no security risk in sending it via normal email.)

Note that you can have multiple keys listed in the .ssh/authorized_hosts2 file - this is why the public keys have comments at the end, so you can easily tell which line in the file corresponds to which key.

To add a bit more security on the server, will will want to change the /root/.ssh/authorized_keys2 to look like so:

command="/root/.ssh/rsync-key" ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaAAA4fobEeQMoC6vRInbeNy5PukQ5fAkCc+Vr...

Then this is what is in the /root/.ssh/rsync-key file:

logger -t ssh-command "$SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND"
echo $SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND > /tmp/work.$$
if ! grep -q '^rsync --server ' /tmp/work.$$
exit 1
rm /tmp/work.$$

Then we need to chmod it properly so it runs:

chmod 755 /root/.ssh/rsync-key

Backing up files

Now that we have the keys in place for rsync via ssh to work, we can now setup a script to automate this for us and then we can put it into cron. Here is my script for this. I will call this and in this example I will be backing up vpopmail:

echo `date` starting >> /var/log/backup.log
rsync -aS --delete -e /path/to/backup-ssh root@HOST:/usr/home/vpopmail/ /backup/vpopmail/location
echo `date` done >> /var/log/backup.log

The '/path/to/backup-ssh' in the above file has this in it:

exec /usr/bin/ssh -i /path/to/id_dsa_backup $*

Now we want to setup the chmod for the following files:

# chmod 755
# chmod 755 backup-ssh

Now lets give it a test!

# ./

If all goes well, It should pause there for a minute (Or more depending on the size of vpopmail) and then it will come back to the prompt. Check your backup log in /var/log/backup.log and see if it started and stopped correctly.

Sunday, 05 July 2015 12:47

Chroot Users using SFTP

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In order to secure your filesystem in the event your clients need access to their virtual or home directories, I would suggest using the chroot command available within ssh.

In /etc/ssh/sshd_config add the following at the bottom. Anyone in the chroot group will land in their home folder.

Match group chroot
ChrootDirectory %u
X11Forwarding no
AllowTcpForwarding no
ForceCommand internal-sftp

You will now want to restart sshd

# /etc/rc.d/sshd restart

Now add a new group called chroot

# pw addgroup chroot

Add a new user and apply the following attributes:

Make sure the new user is in group chroot
Make sure the shell is set to nologin (This will allow them to scp in but NOT ssh in)
Make their home directory is set to any directory.

So when you're done you need to set the perms on the home folder and then the files within that folder.

# chown -R root:chroot username
# cd username
# chown -R username:chroot *

When your user logs in it will chroot them to their directory :-)

Once you do this it should chroot user just fine :-)

Friday, 28 October 2016 15:57

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